This paper makes a synoptic view of the oriental representation of India between 13th to 19th centuries. This period under review witnessed the advent of various travelers belonging to Spain, Portugal, Italy, Netherlands, France, Germany, United States and England. These travelers in their accounts discussed at length about India’s polity, state, society, food, eating habits, religious conditions and ethnic configuraton etc. The recurrent theme of this paper is the difference of perspectives in the travel accounts of the travelers before the 19th century and construction of the 19th century Punjab by the travelogues, as this period was also synchronized with the beginning of colonial project in India. Another theme of this paper as the title suggests sheds light on the socio-economic dispensation of the Punjab in the early 19th century as gleaned from the travel writings. The information about the early travelers in India can be obtained from travelogues, writings of the contemporary historians, logs books, journals and other documents of Europeans travelers in India. After the advent of European trading companies in India, the letters of the employees of these companies also served as an important source of information. The earliest travelers to set foot on Indian soil was Marco Polo (1254-1324), 15th century witnessed the arrival of Vasco Da Gama, then the arrival of Barbossa, Father Monserrate, Ralf Fitch, Francis Barnier etc. During the 17th century the prominent travelers who wrote their travel accounts about the Indian society included William Hawkins, William Finch, Nicholas Downtown, Jain Jourdain, Thomas Coryet, Nocholas Worthington and Thomas Roe. The 18th century was the arrival of Daniel Mognie, A. L. Polier, George Forester and James Brown. The major travelers of the early 19th century included Baron Charles Hugel, Henry Steinbach, V. Jacquemont, Soltykoff, Capt. V. Orlich, Moor Craft and Treback, H. T. princip, and John Wood. The major themes highlighted by these travelers included monarchical dispensation, social milieu in India especially the cast system, the practice of Sati, Oriental despotism, Asiatic mode of production Among the early sources of Indian history not only works on religion, drama and literature are to be counted but also accounts of some foreign travelers. They have preserved a graphic account of India during their period of travel. In the middle ages they were followed by Al-Beruni, Abdur Razzaq, Niketin and Barbossa. During the 13th century the Indian chroniclers like Minhaj Siraj, Ziauddin Barni, Shams-Siraj and others have brought into account the movements of Turkish warlords, the exploits of their troops, the conquest of regions, rebellions of local Zamindars. But they have failed to notice the actual condition of the people, prices of commodities, the trade condition of the people, trade routs, manufacture, customs of the people inhabiting different areas and their mode of behaviour. The gap would have remained un-bridged if Alberuni and Ibn-e-Batutah would not have recorded their experiences of stay in the sub-continent. The travelers like many other Orientals, have mostly discussed the ruling sovereign. They have exaggerated the good points and tried to hide the deficiencies. Most of these travelers have very little sense of History as an exact science. They are lacking in the sense of historical perspective and we seldom meet a writer possessing the ability to reject information on the critical principles. From the point of view of the European reader, they have still more to be desired. Being themselves orientals and writings as they did for Indian readers. They not unnaturally assume in them familiarity with a number of local customs and the institutions of which the ordinary European has no knowledge what ever. Stanely Lane-Poole has made a reference which can be applied to all European travelers. “In such a cloud of witnesses of varied ranks, professions and nationalities, truth divested of insular or continental prejudice, may severely be found. The body of information furnished by their journals, letters, and travelers is indeed of priceless value to the historian of India”.1 In the 15th century the number of European visitors to India was few and their audience scanty, both as regard value and amount. In the 16th century the number was far larger, and their evidence proportionately more valuable. Though the monopolizing policy of the Portuguese were generally increasing the general curiosity of Europe. The Europeans came in India and saw the society, people and political vacuum with keen interest. Though the conquest was reserved for the coming years, but they started collecting information and wrote books. ‘Their books vary in value from the political philosophy of Bernier to the gossip of Ovington’.2 But there is not one of them who is not some way increase our knowledge. The travel accounts of these travelers have their importance because they provide important information about the social institutions of the native Indians and the nature and influence of Indian government during the medieval and modern period of Indian history. The information about the early travelers to India could be get from two sources. ‘The “Principal Navigator” of Hakluytus posthumous or Purchase his pilgrims (1625), one can get information about these sources from the log books, journals and other documents of the European travelers of that period from all parts of the world.’3 The 2nd class of authorities consists of the books in the shape of travel narratives, surveyors and letters of the employs of East India Company. They are mostly in India office but one can also find them in the British museum and the public record office.