After the migration of Holy Prophet Muhammad (SAW) from Makka to Madina, there was significant political instability in Yathrib (Madina). After the culmination of war named “Buaath”, there was also a vacuum of leadership in Madina. Prophet (SAW) was a suitable and appropriate leader for the resident of Madina to fill the vacuum of leadership there. So after migration, the Holy Prophet (SAW) established a grand political coalition among all residents of Madina, (Ansaar, Muhajereen and Jews) to avoid war and settle differences in a peaceful manner. For this purpose a written agreement (Meesaq e Madina) was signed between the Muslims and Jews. This milestone document of Islamic history is considered as the first written constitution, wherein all stakeholders were given equal status and declared as ‘Ummat’. This accord provided a peaceful life to the residents of Madina alongside establishing credentials of a sagacious leader for the Holy Prophet. However, despite the significance of this constitution, a number of scholars and orientalists have difference of opinions on this pact, some even denying the very existence of any such document due to lack of clarity or scarce information regarding the same in the books of hadith. Others claim that two pacts instead of one had been taken place. Some thinkers believed that there is only one constitution of life I.e. The holy Quran. So, all relevant narrations of first three centuries in books of Sirah, History and Hadith have been collected in this article to ascertain the authenticity of this document. The touchstone of Jarh and T'adeel as well as principles of Rewayat and Derayat have been followed for evaluating veracity of facts.


Holy ProphetMadinaMakkahMesaqOrientalist